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He also counselled him to offer them hospitality and food and send them away unhurt. e^dpois rrjv TTo Xiv 6 'Ico/sa/xos' Kal Kad^ e Kdarrjv rjpepav e KTTep L-qp X^ro rd Teixf] ko-1 rovs (f)v Xa Kas, pii] rts ev Sov €17] Trap avrdv^ cr Ke Trropievos^ Kal rw ^Xe-ne- adai Kal ^povril^e Lv d(fa Lpovpevos xa L ro ^ov Xeadai Tt ro Lovrov Kal ro epyov, el ravrrfv rts rrjv yvojprjv 64 ry Srj Xap^dveiv €(f)daaev. 24, "And it came to pass after this that Ben-hadad, king of Syria, gathered all his host and went up and besieged Samaria." " Unscriptural detail. 60-64 cause of his fear of Elisha, he determined to make no more secret attempts on the life of the Israe Hte king, but decided to fight openly, in the belief that he would overcome the enemy by the numbers and strength of his army." So he marched with a great force against Joram, who, not thinking himself a match for the Syrians,* shut himself up in Samaria, relying on the strength of its walls. " a fourth part of a cab (qab) " ; this would equal a log, approximately a pint. (3) Not long after, an army of those Arabs who Jehoranrs Uved nearest Ethiopia, and the Philistines ^ invaded "^J'^^^au T the kingdom of Joram ; they plundered the country - Chron. 17 he is called Jehoahaz ," 59 JOSEPHUS fxevojv €(f)7] Tov diov av TOV r)prjadai fiaai Xea rov tt Xi^Oovs elp T^Kcvai. where, as we have said before,* he was being healed of the wound which he had received in the siege of Aramathe. rrjv tto Xlv d(f)opdv, i Sco P' fxera Tr Xiqdovs Trpoae Xavvovra rov ^h-jovv a TTT^yyei Xev Icopdfio) Trpoae Xavvovaav lttttcoji' t X7]i'. Then he was brought to Jerusalem and there received burial ; he i chron. 27 Jehu commands his men (lxx has the command in the sing., apa.^ 8i) pujtov) to shoot Ahaziah ; but according to the Luc. 36 it was Jehu who shot Ahaziah, and, finally, according to lxx of 2 Chron. 9 when .\haziah was caught at Samaria and brought to Jehu, Jelm killed him (Heb. " Jezebel alludes ironically to tlie regicidal deed of Ziinri, the successor of Elah, 1 Kings x\-i. " A third part of you that come on the sabbath as ( ? 1, he was 25 years old at his accession ; adding 29 years for his reign, we get 54 years. Thus, then, did Amasias meet his end because of his innovations, which led him to show contempt of God ; he had hved fifty-four years '' and reigned twenty-nine. 1) In the fifteenth year of the reign of Amasias, wickedness Jeroboam, the son of Joas, began to reign over the of Israel.

yjp Xero 8' TJhr) roiis llvpovs e K(j)o^elv Kal rapdrreiv 6 deos Kal Krv TTOv dppdroiv Kal ittttcjv^ d)s e Trep^o- ^ VTTap^dv TWV ROMP. And, while the king's servant was ^ea'^* ^i'^ grieving at what he had heard," Elisha began to cry succession. 208 (2) 'Avay Kalov be 'qyrjadp.rjv, rrjv d Kpi^etav ru)v ^ Kai 8ia RO.

ravrrjv Kupcoaavreg rrjv ^ov X-))v vv KTOS rj Kov elg ro arparoirehov ro rcov rro Xepicov . Then the prophet bade Azaelos not EUsha to announce the bad news to the king, but said that Ben-hadad'a he would die. (2) While he was acting in this fashion and com- Elijah's pletely disregarding his country's laws, a letter was jehoram V brought to him from the prophet Elijah,"^ which ^aj|- informed him that God would inflict severe punish- xxi. ^ment on him because, instead of having imitated his own fathers, he had followed the impious example of the Israelite kings and had compelled the tribe of Judah and the citizens of Jerusalem to give up the king in Edoni ; a governor (A. " deputy ") was king." Josephus, however, follows the contradictory account in 2 Kings iii. (see above, § 30), which speaks of a " king of Edom " accompanying Jehoshaphat in the war against the Moabites. Kop LLodels 8' els 'lepo Go Xvp La rrjs e Kel ra(frjs rvy- Xdvei ^aai Xevaas p-ev ivtavrov eva, Trovrjpos 8e /cat X^Lpcov rov rrarpds yev6p,evos. "cedar" erai rrdaav avrdjv rrjv xwpav, (hs rrpoecfi-qrevaev Iwvds.

Rappaport = Rappaport, S., Agada und Exegese bei Flavins Josephus. Reinach —Reinach, T., editor of (Euvres Completes de Flavius Josephe. (4) But, when they came and informed him of what Ben-hadsd had happened, Adados was amazed at the marvel j^^^^^^ and at the mamfestation of the God of the Israelites in Samaria. And Joram 's supply The famine of necessities was reduced to such an extent that JT^'^g"** through the excessive lack of food an ass's head was n. sold for eighty ** pieces of silver in Samaria, and the Hebrews paid five pieces of silver for a sextarius (xeste) * of dove's dung to be used for salt.' And Joram was in constant fear that, because of the famine, someone might betray the city to the enemy, and every day he would walk all around the walls to the guards, spying out whether any of the enemy were within the city, and by his appearance and pre- cautions preventing any (citizen) even from wishing such a thing, or from acting on it if he had already formed such a plan.' Now, when a certain woman ' " Samaritans " is a term more appropriate to the in- habitants of Samaria after the Babylonian Exile. i)v d/x7^;^ai'a hiaxpf]odixevai rd rc Kva (rjv 8 dppev e Karepa 77ai Siov) " dvd C6 rjjj Lepav dpei/Koixev d AAT^Aas". * TTopov T Niese: nopov MSP: napovra R: vapovros O. 64-68 cried out, " Have pity, my lord," he was angered, The thinking that she was about to beg for food or the ^two* "™ Hke, and he called down God's curse upon her," say- Israelite ing that he had neither threshing-floor nor wine-press 2 Kings from which he might give her something at her en- ^■'- -^• treaty. Finally they were so much affected by this means that they left their tents and ran to Adados," saying that Joram, the Israelite king, had hired as allies both the king of Egypt and the king of the islands,* and was leading these against them, for, they said, they could hear the noise they made as they approached. And after this misfortune he himself for a very long time suffered from the disease which the prophet had fore- told to him — for the Deity had struck at his stomach in His A\Tath, — and so perished miserably, looking on while his entrails fell out. his sons and his wives (lxx " daughters ")." ' Bibl. 6 Se adpoiaas rrjv arpariav e/xe AAev e^op/xdu 677-1 ^\copap LOV els 'le^apr^Aai' tto Xlv, iv fj, Kadojs 7Tpo€L7Top€v,^ edepaveve TO rrjv TTX'r]yr]v rfv e Xafie irpos rfj Apajxddrjs iro Xtop K la. /cat o 'l7]ovg rcov Imreiov rovs em Xe Krovs Trapa Xa^djv Kal Ka Oiaas e^' dpp.aro's ei? for he was, as we have said before,*" the son of his sister and, because of their kinship,** had come to see for himself how his wound was doing. e Xdojv ovv irpos top 'Itjow o Imrevs e7T7]pa)Ta irepl t(ov iv Tip arpa TOTre Sq)' TTVvddveadat yap ravra top ^acri Aea. *' A third part shall be at the king's house." (3) 2 Kings " And a third part at the gate behind the guard " (lit. " And a third part at the gate of the foundation " (lxx " middle gate "). 79 JOSEPHUS avve^ov Xevaev, rovroig Tretadevres ^py^o Trjv irpo- aipeaiv ebrj Xovv dvo L^a^ 8e ]co8ag rrjv €V rw Upco OTr Xo Orj Kriv , rjv Aaut ST7? Then Jodas opened the armourj- in the temple, which David had built, and distributed to the captains of hundreds and, at the same time, to the priests and Levites all the spears and quivers " he found in it and whatever other kind of weapon he came upon, and, when they were armed, he placed them in a circle round the temple with their hands joined *• so as to bar entrance to any who did not belong there. This - Kings king was shockingly arrogant and lawless in his con- duct toward God, worshipping idols and adopting many unseemly foreign practices, but to the people of Israel he was the cause of innumerable benefits." Now a certain Jonah prophesied to him that he should make war on the Syrians and defeat their forces and extend his realm on the north as far as the city of Amathos ' and on the south as far as Lake Asphaltitis ^ — for in ancient times these were the boundaries of Canaan as the general Joshua had defined them.

And so Joram, in obedience to the prophet's advice, entertained the Syrians very splendidly and lavishly and then sent them back to Adados their king. But Adados, who counted on capturing the city, if not by engines, at any rate by bringing the Samarians " to terms through famine and the lack of provisions, moved up his men and besieged the city. The loff is equated with the sejctarius also in Ant. 57 (i Xr]s avrfj rvyxdvovar]'; , ottcds eirel rd rod Xiixov Kal rijg e V8eta? 76-81 horses, as if an army were advancing, to resound in their ears, and this suspicion He brought ever closer to them. and the king's residence, and moreover slew his sons and wives.'' Only one of his sons, named Ochozias,** was left to him, having escaped from the enemy. raur' €L7t6vtos €Kaaros Trepi- hvwv avrov VTrearpowwev^ avrcp to Ifxdriov Kal aa Xv L^oi^Tes rols Kepaaiv iaijfj Laivou 'lr]ovv elvat 112 ^aai Xea. *l€l,dprj Xav Sia Xadajv fxrjvvarj avrov ro LS e/cet. Now it happened also that Ochozias, the king of Jerusalem, had come to Joram. 115 o 8 evdvs e Ke Xevaev €KTTei^L(f)9r]vai riva tcov tmrewv VTravrrjaop Levov ko L tls ianv 6 Trpoaiatv yvcoao- lievov. had reigned only a year, but had been a bad king, ""• " even worse than his father. " at the ascent of Gur which is near Ibleam." ' According to Heb. ) priests and Levites, as porters of the threshhold." (2) 2 Kings "And a third part shall be at the gate of Siir " — (lxx " at the gate of roads ") ; 2 Chron. 148-151 counsel which the high priest gave them, and made plain their intentions by their deeds. *• Scripture adds " on horses." * According to 2 Kings xiv. "" Israelites and reigned in Samaria forty ** years.

^ " he replied that God had revealed to him that Azaelos was to be king of Syria. " thick cloth ") is of uncertain mean- Jr— ing ; Targuni and Luc. Josephus's rendering, Siktiov " mesh," would seem to fit better Heb. rjv 8' ovtws ep Lpiavrj's ojo Te TOV Xaov r^vdy Kat^ev ctt I to, uj/r Tj Ao Tara* TOJv opcov dva^aivov Ta Trpoa Kvveiv Tovg d XXo Tpiovs deovs.

For you will slay their best men and bum their strongest cities, and you will kill their children by dashing them against the rocks and will rip up their women with child." Then, when Azaelos asked, " WTiat power has been given to me, so great that I can do these things ? The one who taught him to do WTong in so many ways, and especially in worshipping foreign gods, was Achab's daughter Othlia,'' who was married fuere." Josephus (or his source) is evidently thinking of the god Hadad, the chief deity of the Aramaeans, pav ttjv Ka Xovp-evqi' Aa^Lvav^ V€p.6p,€vot. trd Tpta vopup-a /co/xi^erat Trap' 'HAiou TOV TTpojyrj TOV CTna To X-q,^ 7] tov deov i Sij Xov p.€yd Xrjv Trap* av TOV Xrjipofievov Siktjv, oti TCOV l Slwv TTa Tepojv,7)Tris ovk iyeve TO, tols 8e TCOV ^laparj Xi TCov ^acn Xecov KOTri Ko Xovdr^aev dae^iqp Laa L /cat avvrjvdy Kaae ttjv 'Ioy8a (f)v Xii]v /cat roiis TTo Xi Tas 'lepoao Xvp-wv d(f)€VTas ttjv oatav tov ^ Niese: avrov codd.

In several passages I have ad- opted a felicitous rendering made by Dr.

vii PREFATORY NOTE E Epitome (see Introduction to Volume IV). It may be noted that Niese has discovered a subdivision in the group AMW ; in A7it. Thackeray who has generously permitted me to make continued use of her husband's rough draft of a translation of the later books of Antiquities.

" to break through to the kmg of Edom." * This reference to the kings' compassion is based on the Lxx which renders by /xera/ie Aos '* repentance " the Heb. 'A;^d/Sou yvvai Kog 'lel,a^e Xas dvaipovfievov^' e Karov yap e Xeyev vtt avrov 8a- veiaafievov rpacfirjvai K€Kpvp,p,evovs' Kai /Ltera rr^v rdvhpos re Xevrrjv dyeadai vvv vtto rcov hav^iarcov avrrjv re Kal re Kva Trpos Sov Xetav, Trape Kd Xei re 8id ravrrjv rrjv evepyealav* rdv8p6s e Xerjaai re Kal 48 TTapaax^iv riva fiorid eiav. When Elisha had brought them to Samaria, he ordered King Joram to shut the gates and place his own army around the Syrians ; then he prayed to God to clear the eyes of the enemy and remove the mist from before them. » Or " after great torment." * Josephus uses the lxx word d XX6v Xoi " foreigners " to 54 JEWISH ANTIQUITIES, IX. Josephus apparently takes gerem, which regularly ( means " bone " in Aramaic (and occasionally in Ileb.), in the ' sense of " foot." ' 60 JEWISH ANTIQUITIES, IX. These 7 things, said Jehu, he had heard the prophet say, (# when seated behind Achab 's chariot. a TTOKrelvas SP* : os a Tre Kretve P' : OS di TOKTfivei O: qui occidit Lat. When Jehu heard this, he mar- velled at the prophecy of Elijah, for he had foretold that she would perish in this manner at Jezarela. And, when they had sworn and it was Jeiioiada ife for him to speak, he brought forward the child of j^h™ng. I now advise that a third of your force guard him in the temple, and that another third " be stationed at all the gates of the sacred precinct, while the remaining third keeps watch over the gate that opens and leads into the palace. " the sea of the plain " vra Kal fi'q Sev rov acajxaros Xe Xw^r)- 214 fxevov. 113 JOSEPHUS ^Tos t JSt] reraprov vpos rols 8e Va ^aai Xevov Tos 'lepo^odfxov, Tcbv Svo (f)v Xcov i^aal Xevaev iv 'lepo- ao Xvp, OLS j Ji Tjrpos cov 'A;^ta? ayados Se rjv /cat St/caios rrjv pojv Kat Tvpovorjaai. arparevadp Levos Se Kal cttl Ila Aat- arivovg ko L VLKr^aag H'^XV "'o Aets' ayrc Di' e Xa^e /card Kparog Tirrav /cat Idpivetav^ Kal Karea Kaiftev avrcov rd reixr). °- mortal prosperity, he became contemptuous of the power that is unmortal and endures for all time, that is,, piety toward God and observance of the laws. re Trapohovs €pi(fopdv /cat e Ke Xevov e^ievai Trjg TTo Xeois OJS ivayfj.

LIST OF JOSEPHUS' WORKS SHOWING THEIR DIVISION INTO VOLUMF^S IN THIS EDITION VOLUME I. So Josaphat came to Jerusalem and ieath of dwelt in peace, but lived on only a little while after phat^ *' that campaign, dying at the age of sixty years, for ^ Chron. i36) in Scripture, which says that the king of Moab " saw that the battle was too sore for him." " Bibl. Trpd^eig ^ow Ao/xat Sie A^eti', Xafi TTpal yap elcn /cat luropias d^iai, Kadws iv rat? 47 (2) npocre A^oy CTai^ yap ayro) ^acrt tt^i' ^Siov rov *Axd^ov OLKovofiov yvvai Ka ei Tretv cu? d dv7]/3 avrfjg rovs ■7Tpoff)-qras irept- eacoaev, vtto rrj? 12), " but I, thy servant, fear the Lord from my youth." ' Rabbinic tradition also adds the unscriptural detail that Obadiah borrowed the money to feed the prophets. ro Trapa So^ov Kal rrjv rov 9eov rdjv ^laparj Xircbv e Tn^dveiav Kai Svvafxiv Kal rov 7Tpo(f)T]r'rjv, c L ro delov ovrojs 1 Ovpas MSP. And so, with their eyes and understanding beclouded by God, they eagerly went with the prophet, who led the way. 13) is obscure, " and put it under iiim at the gerem (A. " top ") of the steps " ; Lxx transliterates gerem, Targum renders d'rag sa'ayd " smooth step " (not " grade of the sun-dial " as some" Jewish commentators explain) and similarly later commen- f tators. Then Jehu ordered Badakos,"^ the com- mander of the third division,** to throw Joram 's corpse into the field of Xaboth, reminding him of Elijah's prophecy which he had made to Joram 's father Achab who had killed Naboth, when he said that both he and his line should perish in Naboth 's field. /ca Ta^e/ao/ue Vv] 8' t JSt] to t€ t€lxos TTepteppave tu) alp La Ti Kal avix Trarrj Oelaa vtto tu)v LTTTrwv ov TWS a TTedave. ^aal Xeia avv rots op,€vojv 8'^ ev Hap-apeia Trep LTrei hvo e Tnaro Xas ^Irjovs Trjv p,€v to Zs TTai Sayioyots ttjv 8' irepav to Zs dpxovo L rdjv Hapapewv, Xeywv tov av Speio Tarou rail' ^Axd^ov rraihiov d TTohel^ai j Sacrt Ae'a (/cat ydp dppdrojv av To Zs* elvai tt Xtj Oos Kai lttttcov /cat ^ o dno KTelvas ME: o? But the men who had been ordered to burv" her found nothing more of her body than the extremities alone ; all the rest had been devoured by dogs. Thereupon lie demanded of them a sworn pledge that they would ^urelv guard whatever secret they might hear from him which required equally their silence and their co-operation. pride and, being filled with vanity on account of his - ^'? to) fiev evdeois Xenpav e Tnhpaixelv , irpo hk TTJs TTo Xews rrpos rfj Ka Xovixevrj ^Kpwyfj tov opovs a TToppayrjva L to T^/xtcru rov /caret ttjv Svglv Ka L Kv Xiadev Teaaapas ara Siovg e Trl to dva To Xi Kov opos GTrjvai, ws ra?

TTo Xepiois avrovs e Kpivav (hs el p,ev ^elaaivro avrojv t^iqaopevoi, el 8' dvaipede Zev 76 evdavarrjaovreg . TTpoap-qyvvs irerpais rds 8' iy Kvovs dv- 92 app'q^eis yvval Kas." rov 8' 'A^a T^Aou Xeyovros' Tt Va yap Ig^vv ejuot^ rrj Xi Kavrrjv etvai avp,- ^i^Tj Kev, ware ravra 7TOLr]aat,; " rov deov e(fi]aev avrcp Se Srj Xw Keva L rovd , on rrj^ Si/pta? 'A(,dr]Xos pev ovv 7Tapayev6p,evos Trpos rov "A8a8ot' ro) pev rd ^e Xrico Trepl rrjs voaov Kar- riyye XXe, rfj 8' e TTLOvar) hi Krvov e TTi^a Xwv avrcp 1 Kol el RO. Thereupon Azaelos, with forty camels bearing the most beautiful and costly gifts to be found in Damascus and in the palace, went to meet Elisha and, after greeting him in a friendly manner, said that he had been sent to him by King Adados to bring him gifts and to inquire about his illness, whether he would recover from it. By this act, however, he gained nothing at all, for they all revolted from him, includ- ing those who inhabited the region called Labina.* And he was so far out of his mind that he forced the people to go up to the highest parts of the mountains and worship strange gods. 6 8 em Suo^as Kal Kara Xa^ojv ev ri VL Ttpoa^daei ro^ev- aas erpuoae, Kara Xi TTcov 8e ro dpp-a Kal en L^ds^ i TTTTip (fyevyei rov ^Itjovv els Maye88co' Kd Kel depa- TTcvofievos /xer' d Xiyov e K rrjs Tr Xrjyrjs re Xevra. Him.* But, after he had marched out with his ="^- de- force against Joas, and they were about to join battle, there came ujx)n the army of Amasias such a * Bibl.